过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释

2022年01月20日16:23:51过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释已关闭评论8

2022过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释是合同屋网为大家提供及整理发布,其中里面内容可阅读参考学习。过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释能帮助到大家需求和解决方案,看完能有所启发及帮到您!内容下载可根据需要自行编辑修改,相关内容可进行关键字搜索。分享过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释插图

2022过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释正文内容

过去完成时

一、过去完成时的概念与结构特点

概念:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。|-------------------------------|---------------------------->

那时以前 那时 现在

构成:过去完成时由“助动词 had + 过去分词”构成,其中 had 通用于各种人称。

二、过去完成时的判断依据

1. 由时间状语来判定

一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有: ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。

如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。

如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。

如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.

2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。

过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在: ( 1 )宾语从句中

当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:

She said that she had seen the film before.

( 2 )状语从句中

在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:

When I got to the station, the train had already left.

After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.

注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如: Where did you study before you came here?

After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

( 3 )表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本„,未能„"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3. 根据上、下文来判定。

I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

三、过去完成时的主要用法

1. 过去完成时表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。如:

When I woke up, it had stopped raining.

我醒来时,雨已经停了。(主句的动作发生在“过去的过去”)

2. 过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是“过去的过去”,只有和过去某一时间或某一动作相比较时才使用它。如:

He told me that he had written a new book. (had written 发生在 told 之前 )

3. 过去完成时需要与一个表示过去的时间状语连用,它不能离开过去时间而独立存在。此时多与 already , yet , still , just , before , never 等时间副词及 by , before , until 等引导的短语或从句连用。

如:Before she came to China, Grace had taught English in a middle school for about five years.

Peter had collected more than 300 Chinese stamps by the time he was ten.

4. 过去完成时表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。

如: By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years. ( had worked 已有了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能)

四、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别

现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它。试比较:

I have learned 1000 English words so far.

到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。

I had learned 1000 English words till then.

到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。

— I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。

— Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.

没什么,我只等了几分钟。(“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在)

— John returned home yesterday. 约翰昨天回到家的。

— Where had he been?

他去哪儿了?(答语中使用过去完成时是指约翰在 returned home 之前去了哪些地方,即“过去的过去”)

五、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别

虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下几点:

1. 时间状语不同:过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。试比较:

They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.

They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.

2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断:先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。如:

She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition.

3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时,按时间顺序,只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时;另外,在 before , after , as soon as 引导的从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后,因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。如: He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper.

I (had) called her before I left the office.

[例3]We had learned about 4000 English words by the end of last term. [例4]I waited until he had finished his homework.

[例5]We had got to the station before 10:00.

最后总结过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释以下八篇文章内容:

  • 声明:本网站尊重并保护知识产权,根据《信息网络传播权保护条例》,如果作品侵犯了您的权利,请在一个月内通知我们并将本侵权页面网址发送邮件admin@am3dx.com,我们会及时删除:过去完成时讲解,2.用过去完成时解释